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All dogs need some form of training at some point in its life. A dog is ultimately a dog and would always do what dogs typically do unless some form of training is given to him. A dog training collar is an aid that can add to the reinforcement of training commands and signals and help the dog to change its undesirable natural behavior and to learn to perform and more importantly to behave as to what the owner wants. A common standard dog training collar will send a small shock when the dog owner who is involve in the training presses a button on the remote control. When the dog feels the shock that is usually near to the throat, and hears the corrective command, they will learn to stop a certain behavior that resulted in slight pain. The basic of the training involve that the dog understands that a firm “no” command means a shock is coming. To avoid the uncomfortable shock, the dog will be obedient. 

Once that happen, the dog training collar would not be required. A dog training collar can also help to silence a barking dog. It is designed to emit the shock whenever the dog barks. Usually, a dog will learn quickly that to bark is to get shocked and they will decide the noise is not worth it. 

It is often said about dogs is that their bark is worse than their bite even though such proverbs have little relevance in the modern times but it goes without saying that size is no guarantee of power when it comes to breeds as a Baby Shiba Inu becomes vicious when provoked while a massive sheep dog is intimidating only in size but quite soft and timid from the inside.

For those who shy away from shocking their animal, a no-bark dog training collar has been designed to emit a short spray of a lemon scented mist towards the dog’s nose. Its unpleasant odor according to the dog’s nose would remind the dog not to bark. Some dog owners and professional trainers are using electric dog training collars to aid them in their training regimen. It is basically to help the dog learn new tricks, and house rules such as, to stay off the sofa, bed, kitchen cooking area, not to jump up on people and even bark. 

A common behavior would be that if you slap your leg and tell the dog to come, most dogs will probably give you a dumb look. The rationale is that if you tell him to come and during the process, he gets a slight unpleasant shock, that will teach him to listen to your command and learn better and faster. If you are one of those dog owners who use a radio fence containment system, it is important that you make sure it is installed correctly and there is no threat of serious injury to your pet. Remember that you do not need to use that system forever, once your dog learn where his exact boundaries is when wearing its dog training collar, you can turn off the power to the underground fence. Although many do not agree to using the dog training collar, one must keep in mind that it is not something that a dog would need to wear for the rest of it life. Once he learn the desire behavior required of him, the collar has done its job and would no longer be needed.

This article will provide you some helpful tips on how to choose a rifle scope. This will serve as your guide towards your first star gazing or hunting experience.

Understand the Basics

When buying an air rifle scope, it is important to be familiar first with the basics of it. One step to understaffing the basics is to know what really it is. Basically, air rifle scope attaches to a mount on the top of your air file. This tool helps you to hit the target withy more accuracy.

This is possible because air rifle scope has the ability to magnify the image. The importance of this tool depends on what you are using it for. Basically, if you want to knock down cans from 30 feet away, then you may not need this tool. But if you are targeting something that is far away, you may want to consider buying an air rifle scope. Another reason why people are buying a scope is that they just want to add some gadgets to their rifles. This is also used as a device attached in microscope allowing people to have an amazing stargazing experience.

Types of Air Rifle Scope

Basically, there are two kinds of air rifle scopes that you can avail in the market: fixed and variable. Fixed scope is when the magnification of the scope is fixed. This kind of scope is perfect for plinking the targets that are not far away. On the other hand, as its name implies, variable scope is a kind of scope that allows you to change the power of magnification so you can choose between a higher power and a lower power.

Hence, if you are more into different activities like hunting and star gazing, this kind of scope is the best choice for you.

Recently I spoke about how to use the Instagram app on your computer, so that’s not news. I have been searching, however, for an app that let’s me schedule Instagram posts. It’s finally here, ladies and gentlemen of social media marketing land! Here’s the low-down…



Posting and scheduling to Instagram, Pinterest, Facebook, Twitter an


14-day free trial; Free – one channels only, 5 posts/month; $14.95 – one channel per network; $24.95 – ten channels per network; $49.95 – 20 channels per network, ten team members. All paid accounts give unlimited posts, scheduling and customer support. Payments accepted through major credit cards and Paypal.

You can schedule to Instagram. I am yet to find any other app that does this. I made sure to test it out and it works just fine. If you’re just starting out and Instagram is one of the networks you plan to use for social media marketing, along with the regulars, Twitter and Facebook, this might be worth a shot. It’s pretty easy and straightforward to use, even if you’re not an expert, and the visual design isn’t bad either. I’m always a fan of apps that give you a full featured free trial to test the waters so you can have an obligation-free look around.

It’s easy to look past any design flaws or missing features considering this is the only app of it’s kind…but I’m me and I don’t miss anything, so here goes. You have to pre-edit the images before uploading them to Posts.so – that means cropping to a perfect square and adding any filters you want using a different app. (I highly recommend PicMonkey for this.)


Postso requires your Pinterest and Instagram passwords to access your account initially but they do not store it, here’s why:

If you’re particularly paranoid about apps and their access to your social media networks, you may want to bypass this one.

The app is certainly original enough but I’m not too keen on the price tag. I’d recommend this one for any social media manager handling multiple Instagram or Pinterest accounts, that’s where this app really shines. The current system I have of logging in, posting, checking comments, logging out and logging in again for each account I run three times per day is stressful, to say the least, so I can definitely see how it would help. In addition, considering the best site to buy Instagram followers cheap is also another way on how you can grow your following on IG and other social media networks. To be competitive in the market, you have to consider all the possible ways on how you can put your best foot forward. 

My recommendation to Postso would probably be to narrow their focus on Pinterest and Instagram and become the go to app for scheduling visual posts. This would probably help in reducing their pricing and get more people on board.

The internet is a vast and highly unregulated source of information. Because of this, it’s no surprise that much of the data found online is less than accurate. This is particularly true when it comes to the topic of customer referral programs, here is the Best Site to Buy Views for your Instagram Videos.

We’d like to take a moment and set the record straight, once and for all. Below are seven common myths and misconceptions about referral programs and the real truth behind each of them.

Myth #1 – A Referral program is the same thing as an affiliate program.

This is the most common misconception we hear during initial consultations. It’s true that referral programs and affiliate programs are remarkably similar, and you can build an affiliate program using referral software. However, there are a few key distinctions between the two.

In a referral program, your brand ambassadors are typically your customers. They are already fans of your product, they are educated about the features, and they can speak with first-hand experiences. Affiliates, on the other hand, tend to be motivated financially and lack the first-hand experience with the product. Affiliates are primarily self-interested. Ambassadors may be self-interested but tend to be more complex than affiliates.

Myth #2 – Referral programs are just as effective as other types of marketing.

In reality, word-of-mouth marketing is still king when it comes to consumer trust. In fact, 84% of people would feel more comfortable taking advice from another satisfied customer than an ad or other marketing ploy.

Compare this to only 62% of consumers that trust ads on TV or the only 50% that trust ads in search results. A referral marketing program leverages this trust to provide a much greater ROI than other channels and convert higher-quality customers.

Myth #3 – Exceptional service is all it takes to get customers to refer business.

Unfortunately, it’s not always this simple. Yes – customer service is a critical part of recruiting passionate brand ambassadors, but it’s not the be-all and end-all. Not by a long shot. To really build a solid referral program you must make the effort to actively cultivate relationships beyond the quality service that most consumers have come to expect.

For your program to take root and be successful you must offer people something of value in return for their referrals – and that something doesn’t necessarily have to be money. Research conducted at the University of Chicago revealed that non-cash incentives actually produce a higher response than cash. It simply has to be something that will effectively “scratch the itch” of your loyal followers.

Myth #4 – Customers that are pleased with your product or service will automatically produce referrals.

If this were true, there wouldn’t be any need for formal referral programs, now would there? On the contrary, a marketing study conducted by Texas Tech indicated that 83% of respondents would be willing to refer new business to a brand they love, but only 29% of them actually do.

The fact is in order to obtain a steady stream of quality referrals, you have to train your army of advocates on what to listen and look for in terms of recognizing a referral opportunity, and more importantly, what to do to seal the deal.

Myth #5 – Referral programs should focus only on those consumers who are most influential.

Sure, having powerful people to back your brand is going to help achieve great results, but that doesn’t mean you should exclude less influential folks. In many cases, it’s not so much how many connections your advocates have, but the quality of those connections. All it takes is one referral to someone that happens to have an unlimited budget and trusts the recommendation of a friend to boost your sales to the next level.

Myth #6 – Once a referral program is in place, it can basically run itself.

The most important component of quality, successful referral program is the relationship between the ambassador and the brand. Without this, the program will fall short every time. To achieve continued success, these relationships with your brand ambassadors must be nurtured over time. Leveraging brand advocate program software will allow you to focus on this important human factor of your referral program, while the nitty-gritty details are managed within the platform.

Myth #7 – If I am a SaaS provider, I should just build my own solution.

The truth is, if you are in the software business, you probably could create your own referral program. You could also probably create your own CMS for your blog, or adserver for your ads. You could easily do all your own hosting too. So why shouldn’t you?

This post is about how to use good SEO techniques to get your pages, posts, videos and social media pages on the first page of a Google search.SEO is always changing, but these are the things that I do, which seem to work pretty well most of the time. If you want one on-one coaching and help with the work involved in doing all this, get in touch with me, my email is at the bottom.The first thing you will want is a title that has low competition, and a high search volume, meaning that it will be easy for you to get on the first page of a Google search that a lot of people around the world will be typing into Google.You can do some keyword research by typing in your title into Google in quotation marks, to get the exact match results of how many pages online mention that phrase, and then take a look at the search volume results for that title in the Google Keyword Planner If you have less than 10,000 exact matches for the keyword phrase on Google, and more than 1000 exact match searches done monthly worldwide on the title, then you have a good chance of getting a lot of traffic to the page if you do the right things.You might prefer to go for a search that had ten times as much search volume and competition, but it will take longer and be harder or more expensive to rank for it.

One word keyword phrases are incredibly hard to rank for, I wouldn’t personally bother trying doing that, then two word phrases are easier usually, depending on the niche.The next thing you have to do is write the text for your page, including your main keywords in your title as no more than 2-3% of the text. You probably want to mention them in the first and last paragraphs, but making sure not to have too many keywords in your article, and writing for readers, not the search engines.It has to be natural, or look naturally written, and from what I can tell, you need close to 1,000 words of quality text on a page to even have a chance of ranking highly without tons of back links. It really helps to spend a lot of time making the content good and always at least 80-100% original, or not published anywhere else.The other parts of on-page SEO are adding some subheadings, some photos, and outgoing links to unaffiliated, related authority sites. You want good internal linking in your site, like if you’re using WordPress, try installing a plugin called Related Posts, or on Blogger they have a similar thing.If you believe what HubPages uses to calculate their author score, you need multiple photos, about 1,000 words of text or more, multiple sub-headings, videos, tables, polls, bullet point lists, etc.You have to show the things that the Google spiders are looking for to determine that you’ve spent a long time constructing your page, and that it has a lot of information, and is worth reading.I’m still working this out myself since the changes of Panda and Penguin and Penguin 2.0 and 2.1.

They have a new update called Hummingbird, and there is even confusion as to which update is called what.Google want to keep website owners in the dark, because they don’t like it when people try to scam the system by buying links, building low quality links, or using some sort of black hat or devious method of pushing their competitors out of the search.The problem with the way it is now, is that you can get punished really badly for having low quality links pointing to your site, and so that means anyone else can build those same links to your site instead, and do reverse SEO on you.This will almost surely become the next wave of spam, unless Google decides to only count links from certain sites one way or another.This is what I predict the future of SEO will be, and it will become harder and harder to rank a site on Google just using back links.The thing that is already working really well is using the power of authority sites to rank for a phrase, and then providing a link to your site, or making the sale right there. Social media pages can rank for phrases ten times easier than a new domain.For example, you can use all of these techniques to choose a title for your Facebook page, make a custom tab to either redirect them to your site, or you can make a tab that has any sort of HTML code you want.

You can add Pay Pal buttons, video embed codes, subscription forms, you can have your whole website on your Facebook page and there is endless potential to rank if you know how to get social signals and good internal linking within the site, as well as quality back links.Google Plus has taken over local business searches, for example if you search for a job title like plumber or electrician, you almost always get a list of local Google Plus business pages.You Tube is more popular than ever before, and is also owned by Google, so you will always find a You Tube video at the top of a search for a popular song, and if a celebrity has a You Tube channel, that will likely be close to the top of a search on their name.Twitter profiles can rank in the same way, the followers you have are do follow links within the site, and it’s a huge site, still growing in size every day.It’s easy enough to say all these things, but doing them is another thing, as it takes years to figure out what all that stuff actually means, and the best way to go about it.There is a steep learning curve and without being able to ask someone for advice, or to outsource jobs to that need doing professionally, it will take you so much longer to start making decent money online.

Online moneymaking has become a rich scheme since the past few years due to the tremendous output of social media in the blogosphere while people want to Buy YouTube Views Cheap Real and Fast just for the sake of getting a good subscriber base.

Want to stop smoking marijuana permanently? Relapse is really a typical event with people attempting to quit smoking marijuana, but there are methods you can prevent this from happening if you use the appropriate program. Relapses happen for numerous factors, plus certain circumstances, and you have the choice to lessen the risks by understanding the common factors that can cause a beginning to smoke weed once again.

On the occasion that you want to give up smoking marijuana, probably one of the most important variable is that you really intend to live a life without using this drug. You should require time just because of just how you feel, not to earn someone other or else happy reason. If you are not all set, and you try to quit smoking marijuana for the wrong factors, a relapse is almost ensured. Eliminating your cannabis use can be exceptionally challenging merely as a result of obsessions and also withdrawal signs that could occur, however you could do it by utilizing the best frame of mind, or even the right determination as well as frame of mind.

Another common trigger relapse would certainly be the good friends you pick. Prior to you choose to quit smoking marijuana, your circle of good friends had been all most likely pot users, currently when you intend to get clear, the exact same circle of influence can trigger you to absolutely relapse. To eliminate this opportunity, you need to uncover peers that do not smoke weed, so you do not fall into relapse. Start taking time to finally quit smoking marijuana. Anxiety is an additional common element that activates one to relapse, so you must take steps to minimize your stress and anxiety as long as possible.  The possible results of the quitting marijuana with the medical system can be seen at POCMedicalSystems.com. The taking of the steps with the system should be with the intelligence and skills of the people. The regaining of the habit chances are less in comparison to the other system. 

Typically speaking, people don’t realize the devastating power of drug addiction and also particularly MDD Marijuana Dependency Disorder. In fact, these and also other dangerous drugs are in charge of the harming of numerous individuals in the United States annually. Also if it does not directly destroy an individual at the time of use, drug dependency invades as well as gradually damages the mental and physical well being of an individual which inevitably makes a person isolate as well as be marginalized from family and friends. When left unattended and neglected, drug abuse could make a person do points that are incomprehensible for a typical and civil individual. Fortunately, drug addiction can now cured by different approaches and also specifically successfully via a dedicated in-patient drug rehab program.

Numerous drug rehabilitation centers have lately sprung up with the purpose of giving a means of rehab as well as healing because of the high occurrence of drug-related offenses. There are many inpatient drug rehabilitation centers to choose from, knowing what to look for makes a big difference between success and failing. When searching for an option to your issues with material dependence, it is essential to think about the elements that make an excellent dependency treatment center.

First, you must make certain that the clinical facility adheres to all the standards of the worldwide clinical area setup. You could freely ask to see existing qualifications that will show that the center is secure and also healthy to perform their tasks. All health care experts ought to also have their own medical certifications in order to have the ability to do different clinical treatments. Material reliance is a really intricate illness that must only be handled by well-trained and also knowledgeable people. You had much better look for another if a given center could not provide the necessary papers to prove their authenticity.

Severy Programs as well as Treatments Reviews

You should weigh the price compared to the high quality of the services that a certain center could supply. In some cases, it pays to invest a little bit much more if you get to enjoy better facilities and higher solution degrees.

As you buy snus online, you get good low-cost smoking tobacco for those that smoke preferring to buy super slim cigarettes the UK acquire cigarettes and tobacco products of your high-quality superior quality around the most competitive prices. World-wide-web gives you a particular the right prospects to buy super slim cigarettes the UK gets smoke items on the web. Purchasing cigarettes on low-priced-cigs-depot.com offers a captivating and interesting task. Handy price is provided to buy super slim cigarettes UK each smoker by our tax bill cost-free tobacco retail store. 

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Everyone has their own opinion on what the best water bottles are to choose from. There are many different types of water bottles that are made with different types of materials. There are plastic water bottles, aluminum water bottles, stainless steel water bottles and glass water bottles. There are so many different kinds to choose from and you want to make sure that the choice you’re making will satisfy your needs. So which ones are the best to use? Consider your health and the environment when choosing your very own special water bottle. Then look at durability, style and color if it matters to you. When it comes to durability you want to know that your new water bottle is leak proof. This way when it’s upside down in your bag or it drops on the floor in your car you know it won’t leak.

When it comes to water bottles, the natural choices are the ones that don’t leak up easily and last for a longer period of time, atleast a year to be precise like personalized Nalgenes that has been doing the rounds and climbed the popularity stakes in a short period.

 The importance of water and what we use to hydrate is more essential in our lives. Plastic water bottles have been around for quite some time. We generally go to the grocery store, buy our water there and what do you get? Plastics! Plastic water bottles are not a healthy or environmentally sound choice to choose from. They contain harmful chemicals that spread farther than we realize. You can’t reuse them and sometimes the water will taste strange. That’s because some of our plastice water bottles leech chemicals into our water. Notice on the back of some of the plastic water bottles how the recycle sign will have a number in it. This number is called the resin identification code. That number will let you know just how harmful to your health and the environment it really is. So know your recycle sign numbers. If the recycle sign has a 1 this should be safe according to the FDA. These bottles they have PET or PETE (Polyethylene Terephthalate). However, it’s not a good idea to reuse these bottles as they can leech antimony and phthalates. The number 2 in the recycle icon is safer. It has HDPE (High Density Polyethylene). Number 3 is bad so avoid it. It has PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride also known as Vinyl). These chemicals will off-gas toxic chemicals and leech phthalates along with other chemicals. Numbers 4 and 5 are safer. 4 has LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene) and 5 has PP (Polypropylene). Now, the last 2 numbers 6 & 7 avoid these altogether. 

 Aluminum water bottles usually require some type of inner linings or plastic coatings. Usually these coatings have a chemical in them called bisphenol A (BPA). BPA is a hazardous chemical that gives off hormone like properties which can be a hazard to humans as it can imitate the human bodies’ hormones and cause negative health effects. This happens because of the leeching of chemicals into the water from the aluminum bottle after many usages. When this occurs you will surely notice a strange taste to you water. This was especially a concern to the FDA when it came to exposing infants, young children and even women who are pregnant. This substance is very toxic and should be taken into consideration when selecting aluminum water bottles to drink from. Make sure no chemicals are present. This is not good and not a healthy solution for hydration. So the take on aluminum water bottles is that they are not the best ones to use.

 Stainless steel water bottles are pretty good. These are among the best water bottles to choose from for health and environmental reasons. Stainless steel water bottles are BPA and chemical free. So there won’t be any bleeding of chemicals and toxins in your water. And even better you won’t experience that nasty taste in your water that aluminum and plastic water bottles tend to have. They are environmentally friendly and you can reuse them over and over again. They are also 100% recyclable. And be sure to notice if it’s well insulated. If not then spend a couple of extra dollars on a good insulator. You’ll be happy you did. So no question about it, stainless steel is a pretty descent choice in water bottles. Well, it’s definitely a better choice than plastic or aluminum water bottles when it comes to your health and the environment. 

 Glass water bottles are by far the best water bottles to choose. They are chemical free, meaning no BPA or polycarbonate chemicals, they will make your water taste good and refreshing and it’s healthier for you, your family and the environment. You can also reuse them and have a sense of security that no chemical leeching will ever occur. Let’s start saving money and the earth by using glass water bottles. You can read more on water in glass bottles in this site. Just browse around and check it out.

 Now whatever your choice will be in water bottles you’re now a little more knowledgeable about the different types of water bottles and how they can affect your health and the environment. So make sure when you’re choosing your next water bottle that you read all the specifics on it, make sure that you’re making the absolute best possible choice. It’s shocking to know that it does make a difference what type of water bottle you decide to drink from.

Garden plants are what gardening is all about. Plants are the stars of the show No matter how beautiful your hard landscaping, furniture, and statuary might be, without garden plants you don’t have a garden Plants, their color, form, and structure define your garden. They make it what it is. Plants create the mood, atmosphere, and ambiance of your outdoor space. Whether you want to create an elegant English style garden, a hot Mediterranean type retreat, a lush tropical rainforest, or a modern space using concrete and chrome, you’ll need the right kind of garden plants along with the right tools. 7 Best Lawn Mowers for Small Yards 2020 Reviews will help you in choosing such tools. The choice is enormous, so where do you start?

  • None If you have a particular type of garden in mind, such as a tropical retreat, you need to be looking for garden plants with lush foliage that will thrive in your conditions and give you the rainforest look.
  • None Other kinds of garden styles need different types of plants. For example, no English style garden would be complete without roses. But will roses grow in your conditions? If not you need to ask yourself if this sort of garden is really suitable for the growing conditions you can provide.
  • None If you’ve no particular style in mind then you’ll need to start your search for garden plants that will give some kind of structure to your garden. These include trees and shrubs of all kinds.
  • None After you’ve provided some structure for your garden, it’s time to look for those garden plants that will add the body, color, texture, and form to the garden. These are the perennials, grasses, annuals, bulbs and corms, and bedding plants.
  • None A useful place to begin your search for garden plants is with online nurseries, garden centers, and garden suppliers. Below we’ve put together a selection of online garden plant suppliers who can supply the plants you need to turn your garden into whatever you want it to be. All our suppliers offer a huge range of garden plants at very good prices and many have money off offers. Our suppliers are highly recommended for their quality goods and great service so you can order online with complete confidence.
  • Henry Fields Seeds & Nursery FREE 20$ off flower orders of 50$ or more. Michigan Bulb Co Get 20$ off perennials, trees, and bulbs. DirectGardening.com has some really fabulous plants at some great prices. Brecks Bulbs offer FREE 20$ off orders of 50$ or more. BloomingBulb.com for quality bulbs at rock bottom prices 100% guaranteed to grow Yardiac.com Discover plants and bulbs at low prices in their spring sale. Gardens Alive! Get 20$ FREE on your first order Windowbox.com for a wide choice and great value. Remember to check out our other pages for information on all your other gardening needs.

Download this brand new FREE ebook and get free membership of 1st-in-Gardening Gardeners Club If you’ve ever had problems propagating plants then this brand new e-book will show you exactly how to be successful every time. All the tips and techniques are easy to do and simple to implement that even the most difficult of plants can be successfully propagated using these tried and tested methods. And as a ‘thank you’ for downloading this e-book you’ll automatically become a member of the 1st-in-Gardening Gardeners Club entitled to receive the Gardeners Club newsletter. Each newsletter brings you the latest gardening news, views, and product information together with fabulous money-saving offers from our recommended gardening suppliers. In addition, we’ll bring you a profile of a well-loved, new or unusual plant that you might like to try, along with details of how to grow and care for it in your garden To make sure you don’t miss out on this double gardening feast fill in your name and email below and you’ll be directed to a page where you can download the brand new e-book ‘Easy Plant Propagation’ absolutely FREE. And as a ‘thank you’ you will automatically become a member of the 1st-in-Gardening Gardeners Club. Your name and email will never be sold, shared, or divulged to a third party.

In October 2005, there was a stampede of people trying to file for bankruptcy relief before the new bankruptcy code went into effect. The Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 (BAPCPA) struck fear into the heart of debtors and bankruptcy attorneys alike. The changes were said to be sweeping including Means Testing to qualify for Chapter 7 relief, required debtor education prior to discharge and even credit counseling prior to filing for bankruptcy relief. Many individuals were misled and/or misinformed and believed that if they did not file before the deadline they would not be allowed to file later. Now five years later, those of us who work in the bankruptcy field see that most of the changes were easy to tolerate once we learned the new laws; however, some are more trouble than they have been beneficial. One serious problem with the Bankruptcy Code lies in debts that cannot be discharged.

According to 11 U.S.C. §523 , the debts that are not dischargeable through bankruptcy include but are not limited to:

  • Most taxes
  • Child support and alimony
  • Student loans
  • Debt obtained by fraud, false pretenses or a false representation
  • Debt to a single creditor incurred for luxury goods or services within 90 days of filing
  • For death or personal injury caused by the debtor while driving intoxicated
  • Restitution payments under title 18 of the United States Code

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Other types of debts are also non-dischargeable in bankruptcy; however, the above are the most common. Typically, taxes, student loans and domestic support obligations account for the majority of debts that are not discharged through bankruptcy. Prior to 1998, student loans could be discharged through bankruptcy but Congress amended the Bankruptcy Code to make student loans that were federally secured non-dischargeable. Then with the passage of BAPCPA in 2005, student loans with private lenders were also non-dischargeable. Students graduating college are carrying heavy debt loads before they ever enter the work force in the form of student loans. These loans have high monthly payments and accrue interest during periods of deferment only increasing the amount owed under the student loans. Because they cannot afford the student loan payments, individuals begin to rob Peter to pay Paul increasing their debt with credit cards and unsecured personal loans. As their debt load increases and their income decreases or stays the same, they are forced to consider bankruptcy as an option. However, because they cannot discharge their student loans they will continue to be faced with finding the means to pay them after the bankruptcy case is completed. Many find themselves back in the same position years later with credit cards and personal loans creating an unbearable situation. Some again turn to bankruptcy (you can file again after 8 years) to rid themselves of their debt.

As with student loans, taxes are another debt that survives the bankruptcy and leaves the debtor in a position of finding a means to pay this debt. Again, many individuals will turn to credit again in an attempt to relieve themselves of this tax debt thinking they can pay the credit cards or finance companies this time. However, one serious illness or one job loss will leave them unable to pay their debts again. Perhaps instead of including taxes and student loans in the list of non-dischargeable debts individuals should pay a portion of the debt based on their assets and income. The Means Test introduced with BAPCPA caps the income level of individuals who may file for Chapter 7 relief to keep people from abusing bankruptcy discharges. However, that income level is relatively low with many people having a negative budget each month without taking into consideration a student loan or tax liability payment. By not discharging student loans or tax debts, the Congress is in effect telling these people that they do not make enough income to pay their normal living expenses but they will still be straddled with this debt even after they file for bankruptcy relief. This is counterproductive in the long term and should be re-evaluated to prevent a never-ending cycle of debt accumulation related to student loans and tax debts.


Nothing in this article is intended to be legal advice. Only an attorney can provide legal advice. Seek the counsel of an attorney before making any decisions about bankruptcy, student loans or tax debts.

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